Mini/ Micro Grids
A ‘Mini Grid’ is a system having a RE based electricity generator (with capacity of 10KW and above), and supplying electricity to a target set of consumers (residents for household usage, commercial, productive, industrial and institutional setups etc.) through a Public Distribution Network (PDN). A ‘Micro Grid’ system is similar to a mini grid but having a RE based generation capacity of below 10KW. Micro and mini grids generally operate in isolation to the electricity networks of the DISCOM grid (standalone), but can also interconnect with the grid to exchange power. If connected to grid they are termed as grid connected mini/ micro grid.
The generator of a mini grid can be powered by RE sources such as solar, biomass, wind, small hydro or other notified sources and can have diesel-based generator as a backup. Hybrid systems using a combination of resources like those that of solar-wind, solar-biomass, solar-hydro etc. can also be deployed to improve system reliability and for back up. While the use of conventional fuels like diesel and kerosene to enhance the reliability of RE mini grids is allowed as a back up in rare cases, the Ministry strongly discourages the same. The Public Distribution Network of a mini grid can be designed to carry either Alternating Current or Direct Current (AC or DC). AC is intrinsic to rotating generators (wind, hydro, diesel etc.), while solar photovoltaic (PV) generates DC. The decision of AC or DC influences the cost of project, appliances that can be used, and interconnection conditions. DC distribution is acceptable for low power applications (like lighting, radio, mobile, and household appliances like fans, TVs etc.) and that too in a limited geographic area based on voltage levels and it is also not suitable for interconnection with the DISCOM grid. AC distribution can also support high power applications (by using single or three phases) and can interconnect with the grid. (The policy is neutral towards either AC or DC systems.) A combination of AC & DC in mini-grids is also possible. DC Micro grids are recommended where loads are closely located. The recommended levels are as follows:-
DC Micro grids:-
AC Micro grids:-
A mini grid can provide the electricity service to consumers for various purposes. Few of the consumer categories and potential service applications are listed below. These will be the 7 categories for fixing tariff/billing :-
There are a lot of opportunities that have been observed with mini-grid systems:
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) is designed to provide continuous power supply to the entire rural India. The scheme was launched under leadership of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in November 2014 announcing that "the government had decided to electrify 18,452 unelectrified villages within 1000 days, by May 1, 2018.
Under Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) scheme in the state of Jharkhand Electrification of 246 villages of 09 districts is done through Solar Energy in decentralized mode. The electrification of these 246 villages through solar mini/micro grid & Solar Stand Alone system with total capacity 3.5 MW. Under the program 14155 households of 246 villages are provided Grid quality power through Power Distribution Network (PDN) . The DDG project are financed by Rural Electrification Corporation, Ministry of Power, Govt. of India in which 60% of project cost has been provided as subsidy,30% cost as loan and balance 10% cost to Jharkhand State government.
|Summary of Installed Solar Mini/Micro Grid SPV Plant under DDUGJY(off-grid) FY 2017-18|
SAUBHAGYA- Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana
The Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (or Saubhagya)The scheme seeks to ensure universal household electrification (in both rural and urban areas) by providing last mile connectivity. The scheme is expected to households are un-electrified. A rural electrification scheme has also been under implementation since 2005. In light of this, we discuss the current situation of, and key issues related to rural electrification in the country.
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Last Updated on: 01-12-2023 22:58:07