Water pumping worldwide is generally dependent on conventional electricity or diesel generated electricity. Solar water pumping minimizes the dependence on diesel, gas or coal based electricity. The use of diesel or propane based water pumping systems require not only expensive fuels, but also create noise and air pollution. The overall upfront cost, operation and maintenance cost, and replacement of a diesel pump are 2–4 times higher than a solar photovoltaic (PV) pump. Solar pumping systems are environment friendly and require low maintenance with no fuel cost. Keeping in view the shortage of grid electricity in rural and remote areas in most parts of world, PV pumping is one of the most promising applications of solar energy. The technology is similar to any other conventional water pumping system except that the power source is solar energy. PV water pumping is gaining importance in recent years due to non-availability of electricity and increase in diesel prices. The flow rate of pumped water is dependent on incident solar radiation and size of PV array. A properly designed PV system results in significant long-term cost savings as compared to conventional pumping systems. Agricultural production is largely dependent on rains and is adversely affected by the nonavailability of water in summers. However, maximum solar radiation is available in summers as such more water can be pumped to meet increased water requirements. Urban water supply systems are also dependent on electricity to pump water in towns. There is a wide scope to utilize PV pumping systems for water supplies in rural, urban, community, industry and educational institutions.It works like any other pump set with the only difference being the solar energy used instead of nonrenewable energy for its operation. When sunlight falls on the solar panels it produces direct current (DC) which then feeds the motor to pump out the water. However, in thecase where the motor requires an alternating current (AC), the DC produced by solar panels is converted to AC using an inverter.
There are several different types of solar-powered pumps depending on how they have been classified.
There are certain criteria for selecting the location for both the solar panels and the pump. In thecase of the solar panels, they should be installed in an area which is shade free and has no dust or dirt has a low incidence of bird droppings and which can provide space for unrestricted tracking movement (keeping the orientation of the solar panels in the direction of maximum solar irradiation). Also, the surface where the panels are mounted should be even. Panels should be easily accessible for cleaning and should be as close as possible to the pump and water source.
The pumps should be located close to the solar panels but within the area to be irrigated. The suction lift for the pump should be low. If there are multiple water sources, the source with the highest water table should be chosen for placing the pump.
The advantages of solar water pumps over conventional electric pumps are given below:
PRADHAN MANTRI KISAN URJA SURAKSHA EVAM UTHAN MAHABHIYAN (PM KUSUM YOJNA)
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Last Updated on: 28-01-2023 16:57:41